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Boge Nivomat load leveler rear shockabsorbtion

Rover SD1 and suspension

In the front of the Rover SD1  you will find Mc Phersons with  insert struts, we will discuss  this part later. Strut insert are  still available from Monroe and  other suppliers. The rear  suspension of the Rover SD1 is  something different. 2300  models use standards coil  springs with standard shock  absorbers, but from the 2600  model on they where supplied  with Boge Nivomat self leveling  units. The Nivomat is installed instead  of a conventional shock  absorber, and automatically  establishes the optimum  vehicle level under all load  conditions. Nowadays these  units are no longer available as  new parts in the shop and the  rear suspension of this car is  going to be a difficult item if  you have troubles with then,  but occasionaly you can find a  set on Ebay or other sites. The Boge company is taken over by Mannesmann-Sachs and the  Nivomat system is further  developed and find its way into  modern cars from today. The  basic self leveling system was  designed back in the '80's and  used in cars like the BMW  series, Volvo's and other  luxurious cars. Nivomats are  also used in the Rover SD1 rear  suspension. And here is how  Boge controls the level of our  car.

BOGE NIVOMAT Self levelling rear

suspension.

But how does it operate?

The Mannesmann-Sachs Nivomat is a compact device for vehicle level control, containing all  necessary system elements (supporting element, pump, accumulator, reservoir, regulator, etc.)  in one housing. The Nivomat is installed instead of a conventional shock absorber, spring shock  absorber or spring strut and automatically establishes the optimum vehicle level under all load  conditions. In general, the Nivomat also takes over the spring and damping function. The  installation of the Nivomat is usually carried out at the rear axle of a vehicle, thus level control  with the Nivomat is also carried out there. The specific characteristic of the Nivomat level  control system lies in the fact that the energy necessary for adjusting the optimum height level  is generated from the relative movements between the axle and the vehicle body arising from  road irregularities while driving. This means that - in contrast to other systems - the Nivomat  operates without any pollution since it does not need any external energy supply.

Principle of Operation

The principle of operation of the level control element is illustrated in the diagram below. The  figure shows diagrammatically the major function elements of the Nivomat in two different  operating states. The following elements are shown: low-pressure reservoir, high-pressure  accumulator, pump with inlet and outlet valves, height regulator and supporting element. The  working media oil and gas are identified. Height regulator, supporting element and the push rod  of the pump are rigidly connected with the piston rod.
Above figure shows the state "loaded and uncontrolled", which comes about, for example, when  the stationary vehicle is loaded. When the vehicle moves off, the relative movements between  the axle and the body result in the oil being pumped from the low-pressure reservoir against the  gas cushion in the highpressure accumulator. During the outwards movement of the piston rod,  the oil is sucked into the pump through the inlet valve; during the inwards movement, the oil is  pressed into the high-pressure accumulator through the outlet valve. The pressure in the low-  pressure accumulator decreases continuously, and the pressure in the high-pressure accumulator  increases continuously. Also shown is the operating state "loaded and controlled", which comes about when the Nivomat  has adjusted the optimum vehicle level position. The increased pressure in the high-pressure  accumulator, which acts on the supporting element at the same time, has increased the piston  rod extension force and has lifted the vehicle body. Further pumping does generally not lead to a  further pressure increase because the height regulator opens a bypass between the working  chamber and the pump chamber, which prevents further oil supply from the low-pressure  reservoir.

Structural Design

The major design elements of a Nivomat are illustrated in the picture on the left. The piston rod  is hollow and guides a so-called control sleeve which, along with the fixed pump rod and the  inlet and outlet valves, makes up the pump. The damping piston with its valve discs is attached  at the inner end of the piston rod and moves in a cylinder tube. Gas and oil are separated on the  high-pressure side by a diaphragm. 

Spring Function

The Nivomat is generally used as a partially loaded element on the rear axle of the vehicle. In  this case, the greater part of the dead weight of the vehicle (rear) is supported by a mechanical  spring (spiral or leaf spring), which is installed parallel to the Nivomat. Here, the Nivomat's  function is to support the major part of the payload. When deploying the fully loaded Nivomat  system, the Nivomat supports and cushions the entire vehicle weight, including the payload. When deploying a partially loaded Nivomat system, three spring elements are of importance.  These elements are the mechanical supporting spring, the gas spring (due to the enclosed gas  volume in the high-pressure accumulator of the Nivomat) and a pressure bump stop. The  mechanical spring is designed to be weaker than a conventional shock absorber application as  the Nivomat already provides part of the spring force. The pressure bump stop becomes effective  with increasing compression and limits the compression travel.  In case of the Nivomat application, a dynamic level position is determined together with the  vehicle manufacturer. The level of the unloaded, stationary vehicle when the Nivomat is used  (point A) can be set at the same point or lower as compared to the conventional suspension  springing. However, the static compression in the case of maximum payload (point B) should  correspond exactly to the conventional deflection under full load (point B) so that the vehicle  has the same ground clearance in this case. While being driven, the vehicle will then be lifted to  the predefined "dynamic" level (point C). This requires a driven distance of 500 m to 1500 m,  depending on the road conditions. The characteristics diagram clearly shows the increase of the spring rates with increasing  payload, caused by the increasing compression of the gas cushion in the Nivomat. For reasons of  comfort and security, the vehicle manufacturers' objective is to reach an oscillation frequency of  the vehicle body as constant as possible over the entire payload range. With conventionally  suspended axles the oscillation frequency generally varies clearly between the dead weight and  the full payload (e.g. 1.47 dead / 1.01 full), whereas it is almost constant with a Nivomat system  (e.g. 1.38 empty / 1.48 full) (Fig. 3). Thus, Nivomat applications are usually less hard in the  empty state and less soft in the fully loaded state.  A further advantage of the Nivomat-suspended axle results from the possibility to decrease the  overall spring travel while still obtaining the same or even a larger dynamic spring travel (Fig. 4).  This is often used especially in lowered vehicles. 

Level Control

The level control with the Nivomat is usually carried out at the rear axle and can only be  performed while driving because the internal pump is operated by the relative movements  between the body and the axle caused by road irregularities. However, the Nivomat does not  dropimmediately as soon as the vehicle stops but, due to its internal tightness, it can maintain  the level reached for a longer period.  The Nivomat pump is operated by the piston rod. When the piston rod is moved out (pull), the  pump chamber is expanded. Oil is sucked from the low-pressure reservoir into the pump chamber  through the suction tube, the hollow pump rod and the open inlet valve. When the piston rod is  moved in (push), the pump chamber is made smaller, the inlet valve closes and the outlet valve  opens. Oil is pressed into the working chamber between the exterior side of the control sleeve  and the interior side of the piston rod. At the same time, oil is displaced into the high-pressure  accumulator through the open side of the cylinder tube. The highpressure gas cushion is  increasingly compressed during pumping.  When approaching the intended vehicle level, a spiral groove, located on the pump rod and until  then covered by the control sleeve, is opened. The opened groove forms a bypass between the  pump chamber and the high-pressure accumulator. Thus, no more oil is sucked out of the low-  pressure reservoir; oil is only moved between the pump chamber and the working chamber. When  the vehicle is being unloaded while stationary, the piston rod first moves out further since the  balance between the Nivomat extension force and the load on the Nivomat is disturbed. This  further extension of the piston rod causes a relief bore on the pump rod to be opened. At the  level position, this relief bore is  covered by the control sleeve. It allows an oil flow from the high-pressure accumulator into the  low-pressure reservoir, which results in a corresponding pressure reduction. When driving on bumpy roads the Nivomat is excited more than normal. In this case, the Nivomat  adjusts to a higher level (15 - 20 mm). This results in the vehicle reaching a greater ground  clearance, depending on the ratio of movement between the Nivomat and the wheel. Fig. 5 shows a typical Nivomat pump diagram as recorded during a functional test. In the lower  section, the basic characteristic of the device at a base pressure (20 - 50 bar) is recorded. Then  the device is pumped up to the supported load (90 - 130 bar) in the area of the pump (bypass  closed) by constant strokes. During this, the increase of the spring rate can clearly be seen.  Then the relief function is activated by the extension of the piston rod, and the pressure in the  Nivomat drops to base pressure. In case of dynamic pressure application, pressures of up to 350  bar may occur in the device; sealing and guidance on the piston side are therefore of special  significance.

Damping

The damping of the Nivomat is characterized by a speed-dependent basic damping  and a load-sensitive additional damping.  The basic damping results from a single-tube design, as with conventional vibration  dampers. When the piston moves in the damping liquid, the liquid flows through the  piston valves and the resulting energy of flow is converted to heat. The damping  curves (Fig. 6) can be influenced by the design of the piston and the valves. Factors  influencing damping include especially the shape and size of the constant passage  (CP) and the number, size and thickness of the valve discs (spring leaves). A newly-developed piston system (comfort piston) leads to manifold possibilities of  designing the damping curves individually. Fig. 7 shows some of the curves that can  be realized with this system. The  independent determination of  the CP values in the tension and  compression strokes and the  development of degressive curves should be emphasized. The load-sensitive additional  damping results from the  pumping work by the Nivomat. It  always acts in pull direction and  increases with increasing load  supported. Fig. 8 illustrates the  influence of the load-sensitive  damping. 

Dimensioning

The use of the Nivomat control system in a vehicle requires some marginal design conditions. Firstly, the  Nivomat requires more installation space than a normal shock absorber. The standard outer tube  diameters are 54 mm for separating piston devices and 60, 63, 68 and 72 mm for diaphgram devices  today. However, the outer tube can be adapted - within certain limits - to the specific conditions in the  vehicle's wheelhouse. This, however, generally also causes higher costs.  Secondly, the movement ratio of the Nivomat and the wheel must be considered. If the ratio is small, the  pump in the Nivomat is excited less, and vice versa. This is of significance especially for dimensioning of  the pump (pump rod diameter 10 or 8 mm). High ratios and thus small pump rod diameters can advantage  passenger comfort. The attachment points on the vehicle must be dimensioned adequately for the  Nivomat application. The attachments have to transmit greater forces than the damper since the  damping force and bump force are supplemented by the Nivomat spring force component.  The mechanical spring must be dimensioned weaker than a damper solution, as indicated above, since  the Nivomat takes over a portion of the spring force. When combined with the Nivomat, the bump stop  must be dimensioned separately. Since the mechanical spring, the Nivomat and the pressure bump stop  comprise one system, individual elements must not be modified independently from each other during  vehicle design.  If a level control system with the Nivomat is planned for a new vehicle, we would recommend participation of the SACHS Design Department  in the design process as early as possible for the above reasons. 

Applications

The Nivomat can be implemented as a conventional shock absorber, spring shock absorber or spring strut design (Fig. 9). In principle, the  Nivomat can be installed with the piston rod pointing upwards or downwards. The attachments to the vehicle are generally customer-specific  and can be a pin-type or eye-type joint.  Customer Type Car version This table shows some of the recent applications currently in series production   Daimler Chrysly Voyager Van Especially suited for level control systems are vehicles carrying   Fiat/Lancia Kappa Wagon heavyloads, passenger cars with high comfort and safety   Fiat/Lancia Lybra Wagon requirements, lowered vehicles and vehicles intended for trailer   Fiat/Alfa 156PW Wagon (std. sport) operation. Today, typical Nivomat vehicles are estate cars, MPVs,   Ford Mondeo Wagon (std.) SUVs, saloons and various special vehicles (ADAC, ambulance cars, etc.).  Ford Galaxy Van Ford Focus (model 2000) Wagon Applications for lightweight vehicles and pick-ups are increasingly   Mitsubishi Galant 2WD/4WD Sedan/Wagon + sport designed now. A Nivomat for motorcycles also exists.   Opel Vectra Wagon   Saab 95 Sedan (std. + sport)   Saab 95 Wagon   Volvo S80 Sedan (std + sport)   Volvo S70 FWD/AWD Sedan (std. + sport)   Volvo S60 (in 2000) Sedan (std. + sport)   Volvo S40,V40 Sedan (std. + sport)   Jaguar XJ6, XJ 12 Sedan 

Production

At present, Nivomats are produced by Mannesmann Sachs AG in two production plants. The plant in Munich (Germany) produces ca. 300,000  units annually for the European and Asian markets. The plant in Florence (Kentucky, USA) produces around 750,000 units annually for the  American market. In total, about 95 different types are currently produced, which are delivered to 14 different customers. Both plants are  certified according to QS 9000 / VDA 6.1 / KBA.  Due to the Nivomat's principle of operation the requirements regarding the cleanliness of the assembly processes and the individual parts  used must be very high. The usual general conditions for shock absorber production are not adequate here. All purchased and in-house  produced parts must be subjected to special cleaning processes. After the final assembly, every Nivomat is subjected to a 100% function and  damping test. 

Conclusion

These Nivomat shock absorbers are excellenf for the Rover. However, Nivomats for our Rover SD1 are no longer being produced by Boge -  Sachs AG. If you have a working set as a spare consider yourself lucky. On a search for new rear suspension on my car I went through the  complete range of after market units, from Koni to Boge and Monroe but rear shock absorbers are no longer being produced by many  manucactorer. Only Monroe has a series standard springs with standard shock absorbers for the Rover, but it concerns only what they have in  stock, nothing is being made anymore. Search on Ebay and other sites will however get you a series stocked somewhere. In the end I  managed to get myself a complete set of Boge Nivomats, brand new from the old stock on Ebay. They work excellen, and maybe, if we all  complain enough, Sachs - Mannesmann AG will start producing again. If you want to try, please drop me a line!  The story is written by Dr.-Ing. Dieter Eulenbach, Mannesmann Sachs AG and given as lecture. I received permission to publish this online.  Further information can be found on the website of Sachs at ZFSACHS.COM  Are they repairable? That is the question. Boge/Sachs no longer manufacture the units for the Rover, and with not so many companies  available for aftermarket units, this is a good question. On one of the Rover web sites I discovered this article, of someone who did repair  them. 
Boge Nivomat load leveler rear shockabsorbtion

Rover SD1 and suspension

In the front of the Rover SD1  you will find Mc Phersons with  insert struts, we will discuss  this part later. Strut insert are  still available from Monroe and  other suppliers. The rear  suspension of the Rover SD1 is  something different. 2300  models use standards coil  springs with standard shock  absorbers, but from the 2600  model on they where supplied  with Boge Nivomat self  leveling units. The Nivomat is installed  instead of a conventional  shock absorber, and  automatically establishes the  optimum vehicle level under  all load conditions. Nowadays  these units are no longer  available as new parts in the  shop and the rear suspension  of this car is going to be a  difficult item if you have  troubles with then, but  occasionaly you can find a set  on Ebay or other sites. The Boge company is taken  over by Mannesmann-Sachs and  the Nivomat system is further  developed and find its way  into modern cars from today.  The basic self leveling system  was designed back in the '80's  and used in cars like the BMW  series, Volvo's and other  luxurious cars. Nivomats are  also used in the Rover SD1 rear  suspension. And here is how  Boge controls the level of our  car.

BOGE NIVOMAT Self levelling rear

suspension.

But how does it operate?

The Mannesmann-Sachs Nivomat is a compact device for vehicle level control, containing all  necessary system elements (supporting element, pump, accumulator, reservoir, regulator,  etc.) in one housing. The Nivomat is installed instead of a conventional shock absorber, spring  shock absorber or spring strut and automatically establishes the optimum vehicle level under  all load conditions. In general, the Nivomat also takes over the spring and damping function.  The installation of the Nivomat is usually carried out at the rear axle of a vehicle, thus level  control with the Nivomat is also carried out there. The specific characteristic of the Nivomat  level control system lies in the fact that the energy necessary for adjusting the optimum  height level is generated from the relative movements between the axle and the vehicle body  arising from road irregularities while driving. This means that - in contrast to other systems -  the Nivomat operates without any pollution since it does not need any external energy supply. 

Principle of Operation

The principle of operation of the level control element is illustrated in the diagram below.  The figure shows diagrammatically the major function elements of the Nivomat in two  different operating states. The following elements are shown: low-pressure reservoir, high-  pressure accumulator, pump with inlet and outlet valves, height regulator and supporting  element. The working media oil and gas are identified. Height regulator, supporting element  and the push rod of the pump are rigidly connected with the piston rod. 
Above figure shows the state "loaded and uncontrolled", which comes about, for example,  when the stationary vehicle is loaded. When the vehicle moves off, the relative movements  between the axle and the body result in the oil being pumped from the low-pressure reservoir  against the gas cushion in the highpressure accumulator. During the outwards movement of the  piston rod, the oil is sucked into the pump through the inlet valve; during the inwards  movement, the oil is pressed into the high-pressure accumulator through the outlet valve. The  pressure in the low-pressure accumulator decreases continuously, and the pressure in the high-  pressure accumulator increases continuously.  Also shown is the operating state "loaded and controlled", which comes about when the  Nivomat has adjusted the optimum vehicle level position. The increased pressure in the high-  pressure accumulator, which acts on the supporting element at the same time, has increased  the piston rod extension force and has lifted the vehicle body. Further pumping does generally  not lead to a further pressure increase because the height regulator opens a bypass between  the working chamber and the pump chamber, which prevents further oil supply from the low-  pressure reservoir.

Structural Design

The major design elements of a Nivomat are illustrated in the picture on the left. The piston  rod is hollow and guides a so-called control sleeve which, along with the fixed pump rod and  the inlet and outlet valves, makes up the pump. The damping piston with its valve discs is  attached at the inner end of the piston rod and moves in a cylinder tube. Gas and oil are  separated on the high-pressure side by a diaphragm. 

Spring Function

The Nivomat is generally used as a partially loaded element on the rear axle of the vehicle. In  this case, the greater part of the dead weight of the vehicle (rear) is supported by a  mechanical spring (spiral or leaf spring), which is installed parallel to the Nivomat. Here, the  Nivomat's function is to support the major part of the payload. When deploying the fully  loaded Nivomat system, the Nivomat supports and cushions the entire vehicle weight,  including the payload.  When deploying a partially loaded Nivomat system, three spring elements are of importance.  These elements are the mechanical supporting spring, the gas spring (due to the enclosed gas  volume in the high-pressure accumulator of the Nivomat) and a pressure bump stop. The  mechanical spring is designed to be weaker than a conventional shock absorber application as  the Nivomat already provides part of the spring force. The pressure bump stop becomes  effective with increasing compression and limits the compression travel.  In case of the Nivomat application, a dynamic level position is determined together with the  vehicle manufacturer. The level of the unloaded, stationary vehicle when the Nivomat is used  (point A) can be set at the same point or lower as compared to the conventional suspension  springing. However, the static compression in the case of maximum payload (point B) should  correspond exactly to the conventional deflection under full load (point B) so that the vehicle  has the same ground clearance in this case. While being driven, the vehicle will then be lifted  to the predefined "dynamic" level (point C). This requires a driven distance of 500 m to 1500  m, depending on the road conditions.  The characteristics diagram clearly shows the increase of the spring rates with increasing  payload, caused by the increasing compression of the gas cushion in the Nivomat. For reasons  of comfort and security, the vehicle manufacturers' objective is to reach an oscillation  frequency of the vehicle body as constant as possible over the entire payload range. With  conventionally suspended axles the oscillation frequency generally varies clearly between the  dead weight and the full payload (e.g. 1.47 dead / 1.01 full), whereas it is almost constant  with a Nivomat system (e.g. 1.38 empty / 1.48 full) (Fig. 3). Thus, Nivomat applications are  usually less hard in the empty state and less soft in the fully loaded state.  A further advantage of the Nivomat-suspended axle results from the possibility to decrease the  overall spring travel while still obtaining the same or even a larger dynamic spring travel (Fig.  4). This is often used especially in lowered vehicles. 

Level Control

The level control with the Nivomat is usually carried out at the rear axle and can only be  performed while driving because the internal pump is operated by the relative movements  between the body and the axle caused by road irregularities. However, the Nivomat does not  dropimmediately as soon as the vehicle stops but, due to its internal tightness, it can maintain  the level reached for a longer period.  The Nivomat pump is operated by the piston rod. When the piston rod is moved out (pull), the  pump chamber is expanded. Oil is sucked from the low-pressure reservoir into the pump  chamber through the suction tube, the hollow pump rod and the open inlet valve. When the  piston rod is moved in (push), the pump chamber is made smaller, the inlet valve closes and  the outlet valve opens. Oil is pressed into the working chamber between the exterior side of  the control sleeve and the interior side of the piston rod. At the same time, oil is displaced  into the high-pressure accumulator through the open side of the cylinder tube. The  highpressure gas cushion is increasingly compressed during pumping.  When approaching the intended vehicle level, a spiral groove, located on the pump rod and  until then covered by the control sleeve, is opened. The  opened groove forms a bypass between the pump chamber  and the high-pressure accumulator. Thus, no more oil is  sucked out of the low-pressure reservoir; oil is only moved  between the pump chamber and the working chamber. When  the vehicle is being unloaded while stationary, the piston rod  first moves out further since the balance between the  Nivomat extension force and the load on the Nivomat is  disturbed. This further extension of the piston rod causes a  relief bore on the pump rod to be opened. At the level  position, this relief bore is  covered by the control sleeve. It allows an oil  flow from the high-pressure accumulator into  the low-pressure reservoir, which results in a  corresponding pressure reduction. When driving on bumpy roads the Nivomat is  excited more than normal. In this case, the  Nivomat adjusts to a higher level (15 - 20 mm).  This results in the vehicle reaching a greater  ground clearance, depending on the ratio of  movement between the Nivomat and the  wheel.  Fig. 5 shows a typical Nivomat  pump diagram as recorded  during a functional test. In   the  lower section, the basic  characteristic of the device at   a base pressure (20 - 50 bar) is  recorded. Then the device is  pumped up to the supported   load  (90 - 130 bar) in the area of   the  pump (bypass closed) by  constant strokes. During this,   the  increase of the spring rate can clearly be seen.  Then the relief function is activated by the  extension of the piston rod, and the pressure in the  Nivomat drops to base pressure. In case of dynamic  pressure application, pressures of up to 350 bar may  occur in the device; sealing and guidance on the  piston side are therefore of special significance. 

Damping

The damping of the Nivomat is characterized by a  speed-dependent basic damping and a load-sensitive additional damping.  The basic damping results from a single-tube design, as with conventional vibration dampers.  When the piston moves in the damping liquid, the liquid flows through the piston valves and  the resulting energy of flow is converted to heat. The damping curves (Fig. 6) can be  influenced by the design of the piston and the valves. Factors influencing damping include  especially the shape and size of the constant passage (CP) and the number, size and thickness  of the valve discs (spring leaves).  A newly-developed piston system (comfort piston) leads to manifold possibilities of designing  the damping curves individually. Fig. 7 shows some of the curves that can be realized with this  system. The independent determination of the CP values in the tension and compression  strokes and the development of degressive curves should be emphasized.   The load-sensitive additional damping results from the pumping work by the Nivomat. It  always acts in pull direction and increases with increasing load supported. Fig. 8 illustrates  the influence of the load-sensitive damping. 

Dimensioning

The use of the Nivomat control system in a vehicle requires some marginal design conditions.  Firstly, the Nivomat requires more installation space than a normal shock absorber. The  standard outer tube diameters are 54 mm for separating piston devices and 60, 63, 68 and 72  mm for diaphgram devices today. However, the outer tube can be adapted - within certain  limits - to the specific conditions in the vehicle's wheelhouse. This, however, generally also  causes higher costs.  Secondly, the movement ratio of the Nivomat and the wheel must be considered. If the ratio  is small, the pump in the Nivomat is excited less, and vice versa. This is of significance  especially for dimensioning of the pump (pump rod diameter 10 or 8 mm). High ratios and thus  small pump rod diameters can advantage passenger comfort. The attachment points on the  vehicle must be dimensioned adequately for the Nivomat application. The attachments have  to transmit greater forces than the damper since the damping force and bump force are  supplemented by the Nivomat spring force component.  The mechanical spring must be dimensioned weaker than a damper solution, as indicated  above, since the Nivomat takes over a portion of the spring force. When combined with the  Nivomat, the bump stop must be dimensioned separately. Since the mechanical spring, the  Nivomat and the pressure bump stop comprise one system, individual elements must not be  modified independently from each other during vehicle design.  If a level control system with the Nivomat is planned for a new vehicle, we would recommend  participation of the SACHS Design Department in the design process as early as possible for  the above reasons. 

Applications

The Nivomat can be implemented as a conventional shock absorber, spring shock absorber or  spring strut design (Fig. 9). In principle, the Nivomat can be installed with the piston rod  pointing upwards or downwards. The attachments to the vehicle are generally customer-  specific and can be a pin-type or eye-type joint.  Customer Type Car version This table shows some of the recent applications currently in series  production   Daimler Chrysly Voyager Van Especially suited for level control systems are vehicles carrying   Fiat/Lancia Kappa Wagon heavyloads, passenger cars with high comfort and safety   Fiat/Lancia Lybra Wagon requirements, lowered vehicles and vehicles intended for trailer   Fiat/Alfa 156PW Wagon (std. sport) operation. Today, typical Nivomat vehicles are estate cars,  MPVs, Ford Mondeo Wagon (std.) SUVs, saloons and various special vehicles (ADAC, ambulance cars,  etc.).  Ford Galaxy Van Ford Focus (model 2000) Wagon Applications for lightweight vehicles and pick-ups are  increasingly   Mitsubishi Galant 2WD/4WD Sedan/Wagon + sport designed now. A Nivomat for motorcycles  also exists.   Opel Vectra Wagon   Saab 95 Sedan (std. + sport)   Saab 95 Wagon   Volvo S80 Sedan (std + sport)   Volvo S70 FWD/AWD Sedan (std. + sport)   Volvo S60 (in 2000) Sedan (std. + sport)   Volvo S40,V40 Sedan (std. + sport)   Jaguar XJ6, XJ 12 Sedan 

Production

At present, Nivomats are produced by Mannesmann Sachs AG in two production plants. The  plant in Munich (Germany) produces ca. 300,000 units annually for the European and Asian  markets. The plant in Florence (Kentucky, USA) produces around 750,000 units annually for  the American market. In total, about 95 different types are currently produced, which are  delivered to 14 different customers. Both plants are certified according to QS 9000 / VDA 6.1  / KBA.  Due to the Nivomat's principle of operation the requirements regarding the cleanliness of the  assembly processes and the individual parts used must be very high. The usual general  conditions for shock absorber production are not adequate here. All purchased and in-house  produced parts must be subjected to special cleaning processes. After the final assembly,  every Nivomat is subjected to a 100% function and damping test. 

Conclusion

These Nivomat shock absorbers are excellenf for the Rover. However, Nivomats for our Rover  SD1 are no longer being produced by Boge - Sachs AG. If you have a working set as a spare  consider yourself lucky. On a search for new rear suspension on my car I went through the  complete range of after market units, from Koni to Boge and Monroe but rear shock absorbers  are no longer being produced by many manucactorer. Only Monroe has a series standard  springs with standard shock absorbers for the Rover, but it concerns only what they have in  stock, nothing is being made anymore. Search on Ebay and other sites will however get you a  series stocked somewhere. In the end I managed to get myself a complete set of Boge  Nivomats, brand new from the old stock on Ebay. They work excellen, and maybe, if we all  complain enough, Sachs - Mannesmann AG will start producing again. If you want to try, please  drop me a line!  The story is written by Dr.-Ing. Dieter Eulenbach, Mannesmann Sachs AG and given as lecture.  I received permission to publish this online. Further information can be found on the website  of Sachs at ZFSACHS.COM  Are they repairable? That is the question. Boge/Sachs no longer manufacture the units for the  Rover, and with not so many companies available for aftermarket units, this is a good  question. On one of the Rover web sites I discovered this article, of someone who did repair  them. 
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